3rdInternational Conference On Agricultural Engineering and Food Security
University of Bordeaux, France
Title: Malolactic Fermentation in Barrel or in Steel Tanks
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Biography: Kleopatra Chira
Winemaking process must involve alcoholic fermentation, often followed by malolactic fermentation (MLF). Once MLF is completed, wine is subjected to clarification and stabilization treatments and is stored for aging in oak barrels. MLF and oak aging are two oenological processes which modify wine composition and sensory characteristics. MLF results in better balanced wines due to an acidity decrease and moreover, prevents microbial spoilage and improves wine's organoleptic profile by odor-active compounds production and the transformation of both grape and yeast derived volatile compounds and flavor precursors. Concerning oak wood aging, physicochemical reactions occur such as wood components extraction and interactions between wood components and wine. Wine composition is modified due to the wood extracted compounds and due to chemical reactions that take place when oxygen passes through wood pores or staves. Up to now, these processes are more familiar to red wine whereas scarce scientific research has been performed for the white. Using specific sample preparations, spectrophotometric methods, HPLC, GCMS and LCMS detection parameters and sensory analysis, red wines having realized MLF in barrel presented a greater amount of the principal oak wood aromatic compounds. Concerning sensory results, when MLF took place in barrels strengthened wine organoleptic preference and overall woody aroma was more integrated within the whole aromatic bouquet. As far as white wines are concerned, MLF realization in barrels did not change the perception of main aromas neither aromatic intensity and persistence nor mouthfeel volume or bitterness and did not confer higher overall woody aroma which may mask wine fruity character.